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Cash flow parameters. Maturity date. Cash flow. Early redemption terms. Conversion and exchange. Additional information. Some systems use only these two, or even length alone, but most modern handicapping systems now use the USGA Course Rating system which assesses the difficulty of all aspects of the course, e.

Some handicapping systems provide for an adjustment to the course rating to account for variations in playing conditions on any given day, e.

Analogous to course rating is the bogey rating, which is a measure of the playing difficulty of a course for a bogey golfer. Devised by the USGA, the Slope Rating of a golf course describes the relative difficulty of a course for a bogey golfer compared to a scratch golfer.

Slope Ratings are in the range 55 to , with a course of standard relative difficulty having a rating of ; the higher the number, the more relatively difficult the course is.

In most major handicapping systems, a golfer does not use their exact handicap or handicap index directly, but use it to produce their playing or course handicap.

For some systems, this means simply rounding the exact handicap to the nearest whole number; however, systems that use slope ratings require a more complex calculation to produce a course handicap with some also factoring in the course rating:.

Under CONGU's Unified Handicapping System the exact handicap is rounded to the nearest whole number to produce the playing handicap, and in the Argentinian system the exact handicap is used directly.

A playing handicap may also refer to the stroke allowance for a given competition dependent on playing format , and is generally calculated as a percentage of the course handicap.

The Stroke Index is a number that has been assigned to each hole on a golf course, and usually printed on the scorecard, to indicate on which holes handicap strokes should be applied.

On an hole course, each hole is assigned a different number from 1 to 18 1 to 9 on a 9-hole course. The lowest numbers are usually given to the holes where a higher handicapper is most likely to benefit, and the highest numbers to the holes they are least likely to benefit.

Odd numbers will be allocated to either the first or second 9-holes and even numbers to the other to ensure a balanced distribution of handicap strokes, and guidelines generally recommend avoiding having the lowest numbers at the start or end of each nine in order to prevent early stroke allowances in playoffs between golfers with similar handicaps or strokes going unused if they are at the end.

Most of the commonly used handicap systems seek to reduce the impact of very high scores on one or more individual holes on the calculation and updating of handicaps.

This is achieved by setting a maximum score on each hole, which is only used for handicapping purposes; i.

This maximum hole score is either a fixed number or a net score relative to par. Equitable Stroke Control ESC and net double bogey also called Stableford Points Adjustments are the two most common mechanisms for defining a maximum hole score.

Handicap or score differentials are a feature of many handicapping systems. They are a standardized measure of a golfers performance, adjusted to take account of the course being played.

Normally the overall score will be adjusted prior to the calculation, e. The course rating may also be adjusted to take account of conditions on the day.

The differentials are used both to calculate initial handicaps and maintain existing ones, by taking a mean average of a set number of the best recent differentials e.

For other handicapping systems, the differentials are simply the difference between the adjusted gross or net scores and a specified standard rating e.

In golf clubs, peer review is usually managed by an elected Handicap Secretary who, supported by a small committee, conducts an Annual Review of the handicaps of all members and assesses ad hoc requests from individual members usually when age or medium to long-term infirmity affects their playing ability.

This gives uniformity to handicapping across their club for the setting and maintenance of handicaps with the objective of establishing fair competition between golfers of all abilities.

At the regional level, peer review is extended to include rigorous validation of the handicap returns of low handicap golfers.

This ensures that only golfers of an appropriate standard gain entry to their elite tournaments. Occasionally, golfers are excluded from the elite game as a consequence of being found to abuse the system.

To a degree, these regional bodies also monitor the performance of and provide training for Handicap Secretaries at the club level.

Nationally, the peer review is extended further to assessing golfers from external jurisdictions for their suitability for entry into their elite international events.

They also play a large part in periodic reviews of the handicapping system itself to improve it for the future.

A new WHS handicap requires several scores to be submitted; the recommendation is a minimum of 54 holes made up of any number of 9 or hole rounds in order to achieve a reasonable fair and accurate result, although handicaps may be issued from a smaller sample.

Handicap adjustments will be made upon submission of any 9 or hole scores with updates published daily; unlike some other systems both competitive and recreational rounds may be submitted by all players e.

Ongoing handicaps are based on the average of the best 8 differentials, but with an "anchor" to prevent rapid increases that would not necessarily reflect the players true potential.

There is also a hole limit of "net double bogey" for handicapping purposes in order to prevent one or two bad holes from having a disproportionate affect.

A WHS handicap is calculated with a specific arithmetic formula that approximates how many strokes above or below par a player might be able to play, based on the eight best scores of their last twenty rounds.

A score differential is calculated from each of the scores after any net double bogey adjustments an adjustment which allows for a maximum number of strokes per hole based on the player's course handicap have been applied, using the following formula:.

Only hole differentials are used for the calculation of a handicap index. As such, 9-hole differentials need to be combined before being used, subject to remaining one of the 20 most recent differentials.

The system also allows for situations where less than 18 or 9 hole have been played, subject to a minimum of 14 or 7 holes having been completed, by "scaling up" with net pars for any missing holes.

The score differentials are rounded to one decimal place, and the best 8 from the last 20 submitted scores are then averaged and rounded to one decimal place to produce the handicap index.

If there are at least 5 but fewer than 20 qualifying scores available, the handicap index is calculated using a set number or differentials according to how many scores are available, with an additional adjustment made to that average in some circumstances.

The handicap index is not used directly for playing purposes, but used to calculate a course handicap according to the slope rating of the set of tees being used.

The result is rounded to the nearest whole number. The WHS contains measures reduce a handicap index more quickly in the case of exceptional scoring, and also to prevent a handicap index from rising too quickly.

This is done by means of "soft" and "hard" caps based on the lowest index during the previous days; the soft cap reduces increases above 3.

Updates to a golfer's handicap index are issued daily. The first handicap system to be introduced by the USGA was largely the work of Leighton Calkins , who based it on the British "three score average" system where the handicap was calculated as the average of the best three scores to par in the last year.

The key difference was the introduction of a par rating later known as course rating , which was based on the ability of leading amateur Jerome Travers , to account for variances in the playing difficulty of different courses.

After initially allowing clubs to determine their own ratings, at the behest of Calkins the USGA quickly began assigning ratings centrally. Course ratings were rounded to the nearest whole number until , when they started being given to one decimal place.

In , the number of scores used to calculate handicaps was increased to the best 10 from all scores ever recorded subject to a minimum of However this was not uniformly implemented, with regional associations disagreeing on the total number of rounds to be considered.

In , the USGA specified that the best 10 from 25 scores would be used. This was reduced to 10 from 20 in , which remains to this day although a further adjustment was made with the introduction of a "Bonus of Excellence" multiplier to equalize handicaps and give better players a marginal advantage.

In , Equitable Stroke Control was adopted in order to eliminate the effect of very high individual hole scores on handicap calculations.

With the system still not accounting for variances in playing difficulty for golfers of different abilities, in the USGA set to work on how to address the issue with the creation of the Handicap Research Team.

The result of their work was the creation of what is now the Slope system. Slope was gradually introduced, firstly in Colorado in , before being implemented nationally from The USGA then set about making further refinements to the course rating system, which at the time was still largely dependent on length, to take account of many other factors affecting scoring ability for a scratch golfer.

The USGA was founded in One of its chief contributions to the game of golf in the United States has been its development and maintenance since of the USGA handicap system Because permitting individual golfers to issue their handicaps to themselves would inevitably lead to inequities and abuse, the peer review provided by authorized golf clubs and associations has always been an essential part of the [system].

Therefore, to protect the integrity and credibility of its [handicap system], the USGA has consistently followed a policy of only permitting authorized golf associations and clubs to issue USGA handicaps As a result, the research team developed new handicap formulas USGA subsequently adopted and implemented these new [f]ormulas between and A USGA handicap is calculated with a specific arithmetic formula that approximates how many strokes above or below par a player might be able to play, based on the ten best scores of their last twenty rounds.

A handicap differential is calculated from each of the scores after Equitable Stroke Control ESC , an adjustment which allows for a maximum number of strokes per hole based on the player's course handicap, has been applied using the following formula:.

The handicap differentials are rounded to one decimal place, and the best 10 from the last 20 submitted scores are then averaged, before being multiplied by 0.

Initial handicaps are calculated from a minimum of five scores using ESC adjustments based on the course handicap corresponding to a handicap index of If there are at least 5 but fewer than 20 qualifying scores available, the handicap index is calculated using a set number or differentials according to how many scores are available.

Updates to a golfer's handicap index are issued periodically, generally once or twice per month depending on the local state and regional golf associations.

The organization was tasked with creating a handicapping system that would be equitable to golfers of varying ability, and as a result the Standard Scratch Score and Handicapping Scheme was devised.

The system was introduced in , and used a "scratch score" system to rate courses, taking account that courses may play easier or more difficult than par.

A new system was introduced in , which incorporated features of the Australian system. The Unified Handicapping System is used to manage handicaps for both men and women who are members of affiliated golf clubs in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland.

The system is published by CONGU and administered by each of the individual unions on behalf of their members, [26] with handicaps being managed locally by someone at each club; this person normally holds the position of competitions or handicap secretary.

Under the Unified Handicapping System, initial handicaps are allocated based on returned scores from 54 holes, usually three hole rounds.

Adjustments may be made to the initial handicap should it be deemed necessary to ensure it is reasonably fair. Handicaps are given to one decimal place and divided into categories with the lowest handicaps being in Category 1.

Prior to , the highest handicaps were in Category 4 for men, with a maximum of The exact handicap is rounded to the nearest whole number to give the playing handicap.

For all qualifying scores that are returned, adjustments are made to a players exact handicap based on the Competition Scratch Score CSS.

All hole scores are first adjusted to a maximum of net 2-over par with handicap strokes being used per the stroke index published on the scorecard; this is called Stableford or net double-bogey adjustment.

Every stroke the adjusted net score is below the CSS triggers a reduction dependent on the players handicap category; for Category 1 this is 0.

Should the adjusted net score exceed the CSS , there is a buffer zone equivalent to the handicap category before a 0.

In addition to playing in qualifying competitions, golfers in Category 2 and above may also submit a number of supplementary scores in order to maintain their handicap; primarily a feature to accommodate golfers who play in few competitions and allow them to maintain current handicaps, it is also used by people who wish to try and get their handicap down while they are playing well.

There are other mechanisms in the system to reduce or increase handicaps more quickly. Every year all handicaps are reviewed and adjusted if necessary to ensure they remain fair and accurate.

In addition, any very good scores are monitored throughout the year and an exceptional scoring reduction may be applied if certain triggers are reached.

Historically calculating the CSS and any handicap adjustments was done manually by means of published tables, but this is now computerized with handicaps being published to a Centralised Database of Handicaps CDH.

The EGA Handicap System is the European Golf Association 's method of evaluating golf abilities so that players of different standards can compete in handicap events on equal terms.

It is based on Stableford scoring and has some similarities to both the CONGU system, with regards to handicap categories and adjustments, and to the USGA system, with regards to the use of course and slope ratings and calculating playing handicaps.

The first version of the system was introduced in Under the EGA Handicap System, initial handicaps require just a single 9 or hole score recorded using the maximum handicap of The handicap is then calculated from the number of Stableford points scored.

EGA handicaps are given to one decimal place and divided into categories, with the lowest handicaps being in Category 1 and the highest in Category 6 see table below.

The handicap is not used directly for playing purposes and a calculation must be done to determine a "playing handicap" specific to the course being played and set of tees being used.

For handicaps in categories 1 to 5, the formula is as follows with the result rounded to the nearest whole number:.

And for category 6 a "playing handicap differential" is used, which is equal to the playing handicap for a handicap index of For all qualifying scores that are returned, adjustments are made to a players handicap index.

All scores are first converted into Stableford points if necessary i. Should the number of points scored be below the buffer zone, a fixed increase of 0.

In addition to playing in qualifying competitions, golfers in Category 2 and above may also submit a number of extra day scores in order to maintain their handicap.

Handicaps are also reviewed annually and any necessary adjustments made. When GOLF Link was first introduced it contained two key characteristics that set it apart from other world handicapping systems at the time:.

In April GA adopted the USGA calculation method using the average of the best 10 differentials of the player's past 20 total rounds, multiplied by 0.

In September this was altered to the best 8 out of 20 rounds, multiplied by 0. The reasons for these changes were cited to restore equity between high and low handicaps.

For handicapping purposes, the scratch rating is adjusted to reflect scoring conditions "Daily Scratch Rating" , and all scores are converted into Stableford points, called the Stableford Handicap Adjustment SHA and inherently applying net double bogey adjustments, regardless of the scoring system being used while playing.

Handicaps are calculated from the best 8 adjusted differentials , called "sloped played to" results, from the most recent 20 scores.

Should there be 3 or more but fewer than 20 scores available, a specified number of "sloped played to" results are used, per the table below.

New handicaps require 3 hole scores to be submitted or any combination of 9 and hole scores totaling 54 holes played using a "Temporary Daily Handicap" of 36 for men or 45 for women in order to calculate the necessary "sloped played to" results.

To calculate the GA handicap, the "sloped played to" results are averaged and multiplied by a factor of 0. The GA handicap is used to create a " daily handicap ", specific to the course and set of tees being used, using the following formula with the result rounded to the nearest whole number: [35].

Before , the South African Handicap System used a propriety course rating system without slope, called Standard Rating, which included specific calculations for length and altitude.

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